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The enzyme CYP2C19

The enzyme CYP2C19 (full name: Cytochrome P450 2C19) is involved in the metabolisation of xenobiotics, such as drugs. Around 6 to 10% of all drugs are metabolised by CYP2C19. Drugs that can be metabolised by the enzyme CYP2C19 include:

  • Proton pump inhibitors such as lansoprazole, omeprazole, pantoprazole, esomeprazole and rabeprazole
  • Anticonvulsants such as diazepam, phenytoin, phenobarbital, hexobarbital and primidone
  • Antidepressants such as sertraline, amitriptyline, imipramine, citalopram, clomipramine, escitalopram and moclobemide
  • Other drugs such as voriconazole (used to treat fungal and yeast infections), chloramphenicol (antibiotic), cyclophosphamide (cytostatic), indomethacin (painkiller, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic), propranolol (beta blocker), R-warfarin (anticoagulant), clopidogrel (anticoagulant), progesterone (hormone), nilutamide (anti-androgen) and proguanil (antimalarial)

Citalopram and the enzyme CYP2C19

Citalopram is processed within the body primarily by the enzyme CYP2C19. The activity of this enzyme can vary considerably depending on your genetic predisposition, which means the efficacy of citalopram and the risk of side effects can also differ from person to person.

Information about your genetic predisposition may therefore provide grounds for extra vigilance in relation to a treatment with citalopram.

Read more about Citalopram »

Clomipramine and the enzyme CYP2C19

Clomipramine is processed to a large extent by the enzymes CYP2C19 and CYP2D6.

Initially, clomipramine is metabolised (demethylated) by the enzyme CYP2C19 into another active substance. The enzymes CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 are also involved in this step to a lesser extent. After this activation step this substance is metabolised further (hydroxylated) by the enzyme CYP2D6 into less active components.

The activity of the enzymes concerned can vary considerably depending on your genetic predisposition, which means the efficacy of clomipramine can also differ from person to person. Information about your genetic predisposition may therefore provide grounds for extra vigilance in relation to a treatment with clomipramine.

Read more about Clomipramine »

Clopidogrel and the enzyme CYP2C19

Clopidogrel is a drug that first needs to be metabolised into an active component within the body. The enzyme CYP2C19 plays an important role in this process.

The activity of this enzyme can, however, vary considerably depending on your genetic predisposition, which means the availability of the active component of clopidogrel can also differ from person to person.

Information about your genetic predisposition may therefore provide grounds to opt for an alternative anticoagulant.

Read more about Clopidogrel »

Escitalopram and the enzyme CYP2C19

Escitalopram is processed within the body primarily by the enzyme CYP2C19. The activity of this enzyme can vary considerably depending on your genetic predisposition, which means the efficacy of escitalopram and the risk of side effects can also differ from person to person.

Information about your genetic predisposition may therefore provide grounds for extra vigilance in relation to a treatment with escitalopram.

Read more about Escitalopram »

Imipramine and the enzyme CYP2C19

Imipramine is processed to a large extent by the enzymes CYP2C19 and CYP2D6.

Initially, imipramine is metabolised (demethylated) by the enzyme CYP2C19 into another active substance. The enzymes CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 are also involved in this step to a lesser extent. After this activation step this substance is metabolised further (hydroxylated) by the enzyme CYP2D6 into less active components.

The activity of the enzymes concerned can vary considerably depending on your genetic predisposition, which means the efficacy of imipramine can also differ from person to person. Information about your genetic predisposition may therefore provide grounds for extra vigilance in relation to a treatment with imipramine.

Read more about Imipramine »

Lansoprazole and the enzyme CYP2C19

Lansoprazole is processed within the body primarily by the enzyme CYP2C19. The activity of this enzyme can vary considerably depending on your genetic predisposition, which means the efficacy of lansoprazole can also differ from person to person.

Information about your genetic predisposition may therefore provide grounds for extra vigilance in relation to a treatment with lansoprazole.

Read more about Lansoprazole »

Omeprazole and the enzyme CYP2C19

Omeprazole is processed within the body primarily by the enzyme CYP2C19. The activity of this enzyme can vary considerably depending on your genetic predisposition, which means the efficacy of omeprazole can also differ from person to person.

Information about your genetic predisposition may therefore provide grounds for extra vigilance in relation to a treatment with omeprazole.

Read more about Omeprazole »

Pantoprazole and the enzyme CYP2C19

Pantoprazole is processed within the body primarily by the enzyme CYP2C19. The activity of this enzyme can vary considerably depending on your genetic predisposition, which means the efficacy of pantoprazole can also differ from person to person.

Information about your genetic predisposition may therefore provide grounds for extra vigilance in relation to a treatment with pantoprazole.

Read more about Pantoprazole »

Sertraline and the enzyme CYP2C19

Sertraline is processed within the body primarily by the enzyme CYP2C19. The activity of this enzyme can vary considerably depending on your genetic predisposition, which means the efficacy of sertraline and the risk of side effects can also differ from person to person.

Information about your genetic predisposition may therefore provide grounds for extra vigilance in relation to a treatment with sertraline.

Read more about Sertraline »

Voriconazole and the enzyme CYP2C19

Voriconazole is processed within the body primarily by the enzyme CYP2C19. The activity of this enzyme can vary considerably depending on your genetic predisposition, which means the efficacy of voriconazole can also differ from person to person.

Information about your genetic predisposition may therefore provide grounds for extra vigilance in relation to a treatment with voriconazole.

Read more about Voriconazole »

Genetic predisposition
The activity of the enzyme CYP2C19 varies from one individual to another. As a result, the efficacy of a drug can differ from person to person, as can the risk of potential side effects. This variation can be partly explained by genetic variations in the CYP2C19 gene.
When a genotype is determined these variations in the CYP2C19 gene are indicated by two so-called alleles. Each allele has a name consisting of an asterisk (*) and a number. An example of a possible CYP2C19 genotype is CYP2C19*1/*2.
At iGene we determine the following variants (alleles) of the CYP2C19 gene: CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, CYP2C19*4, CYP2C19*5, CYP2C19*6, CYP2C19*7, CYP2C19*8, CYP2C19*9, CYP2C19*10, CYP2C19*17 and other (CYP2C19*1 has normal activity).