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CYP2C19 enzyme

The enzyme CYP2C19 (full name: Cytochrome P450 2C19) is involved in the metabolisation of xenobiotics, such as drugs. Around 6 to 10% of all drugs are metabolised by CYP2C19. Drugs that can be metabolised by the enzyme CYP2C19 include:

  • Proton pump inhibitors such as lansoprazole, omeprazole, pantoprazole, esomeprazole and rabeprazole
  • Anticonvulsants such as diazepam, phenytoin, phenobarbital, hexobarbital and primidone
  • Antidepressants such as sertraline, amitriptyline, imipramine, citalopram, clomipramine, escitalopram and moclobemide
  • Other drugs such as voriconazole (used to treat fungal and yeast infections), chloramphenicol (antibiotic), cyclophosphamide (cytostatic), indomethacin (painkiller, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic), propranolol (beta blocker), R-warfarin (anticoagulant), clopidogrel (anticoagulant), progesterone (hormone), nilutamide (anti-androgen) and proguanil (antimalarial)

Genetic predisposition
The activity of the enzyme CYP2C19 varies from one individual to another. As a result, the efficacy of a drug can differ from person to person, as can the risk of potential side effects. This variation can be partly explained by genetic variations in the CYP2C19 gene.
When a genotype is determined these variations in the CYP2C19 gene are indicated by two so-called alleles. Each allele has a name consisting of an asterisk (*) and a number. An example of a possible CYP2C19 genotype is CYP2C19*1/*2.
At iGene we determine the following variants (alleles) of the CYP2C19 gene: CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, CYP2C19*4, CYP2C19*5, CYP2C19*6, CYP2C19*7, CYP2C19*8, CYP2C19*9, CYP2C19*10, CYP2C19*17 and other (CYP2C19*1 has normal activity).

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